The Portuguese in the Age of Discovery, c.1340-1665, David Nicolle

The Portuguese in the Age of Discovery, c.1340-1665, David Nicolle


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The Portuguese in the Age of Discovery, c.1340-1665, David Nicolle

The Portuguese in the Age of Discovery, c.1340-1665, David Nicolle

Men at Arms 484

This is a vast topic. The time period takes us from the start of the Hundred Years War (where Portugal allied with England) to the recovery of Portuguese independence in the Seventeenth Century, while the Portuguese Empire included outposts in Brazil, all around the coasts of Africa and India and into south-east Asia, China and Japan. In most cases there were small enclaves or trading posts, but some in some areas the Portuguese ended up with quite sizable holdings.

This is a study of a very varied military. In most areas of its empire the Portuguese used a mix of European and local troops, with local men able to reach high rank. This is the most intriguing area of the book - by the seventeenth century the Portuguese army in Brazil was probably the most integrated and multi-racial in the world at the time, and it was impressively effective.

Inevitably given the size of the topic and the book this is very much an overview of a much larger subject, but it is interesting and effectively organised. The illustrations are excellent, with contemporary art, pictures of surviving artefacts and useful maps in the main text and Osprey's high quality colour illustrations in a dedicated plate section. This is an interesting introduction to the military underpinnings of the Portuguese Empire.

Chapters
Introduction
Chronology
Portuguese Armies before the Hundred Years' War
Organization and Recruitment, c.1400-1560
Mercenaries and Colonial Forces
Motivation, Training and Morale
Strategy and Tactics
Warships, Equipment and Weapons
Select Bibliography

Author: David Nicolle
Edition: Paperback
Pages: 48
Publisher: Osprey
Year: 2012



Contents

Hancock was born on 10 June 1909 in Leederville, Perth, Western Australia. He was the oldest of four children born to Lilian ( née Prior) and George Hancock his mother was born in South Australia and his father in Western Australia. His father's great-aunt was Emma Withnell, while a cousin was Sir Valston Hancock. [2] Hancock spent his early childhood on his family's station at Ashburton Downs, later moving to Mulga Downs Station in the north-west after his father, George Hancock, bought a farming estate there. [3] After initially being educated at home, at the age of eight he began boarding at the St Aloysius Convent of Mercy in Toodyay. He later attended Hale School in Perth from 1924 to 1927, where he played for the school cricket and football teams. [2] Upon completing his secondary education, he returned to Mulga Downs Station to help his father manage the property. [3]

As a young man, Hancock was widely considered charming and charismatic. In 1935 he married 21-year-old Susette Maley, described by his biographer Debi Marshall as "an attractive blonde with laughing eyes". The couple lived at Mulga Downs for many years, but Maley pined for city life and eventually left Hancock to return to Perth. Their separation – formalised in 1944 – was amicable. Also in 1935, Hancock took over the management of Mulga Downs station from his father. He partnered with his old schoolmate E. A. "Peter" Wright in running the property, later boasting that no deals between the two men were ever sealed with anything stronger than a handshake. [4]

During the Second World War, Hancock served in a militia unit, the 11th (North-West) Battalion, Volunteer Defence Corps, and obtained the rank of sergeant. [5] On 4 August 1947, he married his second wife, Hope Margaret Nicholas, the mother of his only acknowledged child, Gina Rinehart. Lang and Hope remained married for 35 years, until her death in 1983 at the age of 66. In 2012 Hilda Kickett, who had long claimed to be Lang Hancock's illegitimate daughter came forward to claim that the late mining magnate had had an illicit affair with an Aboriginal cook on his property at Mulga Downs resulting in her conception. [6] [7] These claims have not been corroborated. [8]

As a child, Hancock showed a keen interest in mining and prospecting and discovered asbestos at Wittenoom Gorge at the age of ten. [9] He staked a claim at Wittenoom in 1934 and began mining blue asbestos there in 1938 with the company Australian Blue Asbestos.

The mine attracted the attention of national behemoths CSR Limited, who purchased the claim in 1943. Hancock retained a 49% share after the sale, but appears to have become quickly disillusioned about this arrangement, complaining that CSR viewed their 51% share as a licence to ignore his views. He sold the remainder of his claim in 1948. The mine would later become the source of much controversy, when hundreds of cases of asbestos-related diseases came to light. [10] He was aware of the dangers of asbestos prior to selling his stake in Australian Blue Asbestos (as recently discovered papers have shown) but never accepted any liability, nor have his companies since his death. Neither the Australian federal government nor the Western Australian state government have pursued his companies for damages as of 2017.

On 16 November 1952, Hancock claimed he discovered the world's largest deposit of iron ore in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Hancock said he was flying from Nunyerry to Perth with his wife, Hope, when they were forced by bad weather to fly low, through the gorges of the Turner River. In Hancock's own words, [11]

In November 1952, I was flying down south with my wife Hope, and we left a bit later than usual and by the time we got over the Hamersley Ranges, the clouds had formed and the ceiling got lower and lower. I got into the Turner River, knowing full well if I followed it through, I would come out into the Ashburton. On going through a gorge in the Turner River, I noticed that the walls looked to me to be solid iron and was particularly alerted by the rusty looking colour of it, it showed to me to be oxidised iron.

The story is widely accepted in modern descriptions of the discovery, but one biographer, Neill Phillipson, disputes Hancock's account. In Man of Iron he argues that there was no rain in the area of the Turner River on 16 November 1952 or indeed on any day in November 1952, a fact the Australian Bureau of Metrology confirms. Hancock returned to the area many times and, accompanied by prospector Ken McCamey, followed the iron ore over a distance of 112 km. He soon came to realise that he had stumbled across reserves of iron ore so vast that they could supply the entire world, thus confirming the discovery of the geologist Harry Page Woodward, who after his survey asserted:

"[t]his is essentially an iron ore country. There is enough iron ore to supply the whole world, should the present sources be worked out". - Annual General Report of the Government Geologist, 1890 The report was ignored. [12] [13]

At the time, however, the common perception was that mineral resources were scarce in Australia. The Commonwealth Government had enacted an embargo on the export of iron ore, while the Government of Western Australia banned the pegging of claims for iron ore prospects. Hancock lobbied furiously for a decade to get the ban lifted and in 1961 was finally able to reveal his discovery and stake his claim. [13]

In the mid sixties Hancock turned once more to Peter Wright and the pair entered into a deal with mining giant Rio Tinto Group to develop the iron ore find. Hancock named it "Hope Downs" after his wife. Under the terms of the deal Rio Tinto set up and still administer a mine in the area. Wright and Hancock walked away with annual royalties of A$25 million, split evenly between the two men. In 1990, Hancock was estimated by Business Review Weekly to be worth a minimum of A$125 million. [14]

Although Lang Hancock never aspired to political office, he held strong conservative political views and often entered the political arena. In addition to his activities in the 1950s, lobbying against government restrictions on the mining of iron ore, Hancock donated considerable sums of money to politicians of many political stripes. His political views aligned most closely with the Liberal and National Parties of Australia. He was a good friend and strong supporter of Queensland Premier Joh Bjelke-Petersen and donated A$632,000 to the Queensland National Party while Sir Joh was in charge. He gave A$314,000 to their counterparts in Western Australia, but also gave the Western Australian Labor Party A$985,000 because "at least they can't do any harm". Hancock had had a falling-out with Sir Charles Court and the Western Australian Liberals and was adamant that the Liberals should be kept out of power as long as possible. [15]

Hancock also offered strong advice to the politicians he favoured. In 1977 he sent a Telex to the then-Treasurer of Australia Sir Phillip Lynch, telling him he needed to "stop money coming in to finance subversive activities, such as Friends of the Earth, which is a well-heeled foreign operation." He also suggested to Sir Joh Bjelke-Petersen that the Federal Government should attempt to censor the works of Ralph Nader and John Kenneth Galbraith, lest they "wreck Fraser's government".

In 1969 Hancock and his partner Peter Wright commenced publication in Perth of a weekly newspaper, The Sunday Independent, principally to help further their mining interests. Faced with strong competition, the newspaper is thought never to have turned a profit, Hancock largely relinquishing his interest in it in the early 70s and Wright selling it to The Truth in 1984.

Hancock was a staunch proponent of small government and resented what he considered to be interference by the Commonwealth Government in Western Australian affairs. He declared before a state Royal Commission in 1991 that "I have always believed that the best government is the least government", and that "Although governments do not and cannot positively help business, they can be disruptive and destructive." [16]

Hancock bankrolled an unsuccessful secessionist party in the 1970s, [17] and in 1979 published a book, Wake Up Australia, outlining what he saw as the case for Western Australian secession. The book was launched by Gina Rinehart and Sir Joh Bjelke-Petersen.

Hancock is quoted as saying, [18]

"Mining in Australia occupies less than one-fifth of one percent of the total surface of our continent and yet it supports 14 million people. Nothing should be sacred from mining whether it's your ground, my ground, the blackfellow's ground or anybody else's. So the question of Aboriginal land rights and things of this nature shouldn’t exist."

In a 1984 television interview, [19] Hancock suggested forcing unemployed indigenous Australians − specifically "the ones that are no good to themselves and who can't accept things, the half-castes" − to collect their welfare cheques from a central location. "And when they had gravitated there, I would dope the water up so that they were sterile and would breed themselves out in the future, and that would solve the problem."

In 1983, the same year as Hope Hancock's death, Rose Lacson (now Porteous) arrived in Australia from the Philippines on a three-month working visa. By the arrangement of Hancock's daughter, Gina Rinehart, Porteous began working as a maid for the newly widowed Lang Hancock. [20]

Hancock and Porteous became romantically involved over the course of Porteous' employment and they were wed on 6 July 1985 [20] in Sydney. It was a third marriage for each of them. Porteous, who was thirty-nine years younger than her husband, was often accused of gold digging because of their age disparity, as well as being unfaithful and promiscuous. As Porteous later stated: "I have been accused of sleeping with every man in Australia . I would have been a very busy woman." [21] Hancock's daughter, Gina Rinehart, who stood to inherit his entire estate, did not attend the wedding.

Although the marriage would later prove tumultuous, early on Hancock was clearly infatuated with his young wife. He gave her money and investments in real estate in the Sydney area. Porteous, in turn, helped Hancock to look and act like a much younger man, belying his eight decades. As The Age put it, "Rose made Lang feel younger, sprucing up his wardrobe, dying his hair and getting rid of his cane." [22] Together they built the "Prix d'Amour", a lavish 16-block mansion overlooking the Swan River. The mansion, which was modelled after Tara, the plantation mansion from the movie Gone with the Wind, was the setting for many large parties at which Hancock and Porteous would "dance into the night". [22]

As the marriage wore on, however, the relationship between Lang and Rose began to break down. Rinehart would later claim that Hancock's bride had paid little attention to his worsening health, but had instead "screeched at him for money". [22] Although there were many quarrels, the Hancocks remained married until Lang's death in 1992. [20]

On 25 June 1992, less than three months after Hancock's death, Porteous married for the fourth time, to Hancock's long-time friend William Porteous. [20] Rinehart was indignant at the haste with which her stepmother had remarried.

The Prix d'Amour, built in 1990, was bulldozed in March 2006. [23] West Australian finance minister Max Evans mourned the loss of the home as the excavators moved in and recalled Hancock had been bemused by his wife's desire for the sprawling mansion:

"He'd say, 'Mr Evans, I don't know why Rose wants this house, I'd be happy sleeping in a transportable.' "

Mrs Porteous told him she'd always wanted to live in Prix D'Amour, "but I don't want to clean it", she had added quickly. [24]

In March 1992 Hancock died, aged 82 years, [20] while living in the guesthouse of the Prix D'Amour, the palatial home he had built for his third wife, Rose. According to his daughter, the death was "unexpected" and came "despite strong will to live". [11]

An autopsy showed that he had died of arteriosclerotic heart disease and police investigation revealed no evidence to contradict that. [20] However, Hancock's daughter insisted that her stepmother had unnaturally hastened his death. Two successive state coroners refused to allow an inquest, but one was eventually granted in 1999 under the direction of the WA Attorney-General, Peter Foss. [20]

After preliminary hearings during 2000, the inquest began in April 2001 with an initial estimate of 63 witnesses to be called over five weeks. [20] The inquest was dominated by claims that Porteous had literally nagged Hancock to death with shrill tantrums and arguments. Porteous denied the allegations, famously explaining: "For anyone else it would be a tantrum, for me it's just raising my voice." [21] In the last few days of Hancock's life, Porteous had attempted to pressure him into changing his will and Hancock eventually took out a restraining order against her. [25] The inquest was put on hold after allegations that Rinehart had paid witnesses to appear and that some had lied in their testimony. [26] It resumed three months later with a smaller witness list and ended with the finding that Hancock had died of natural causes and not as a result of Porteous' behaviour. [20]

With a legal bill of A$2.7m, [27] Rose and William Porteous commenced action against Rinehart, that was eventually settled out of court in 2003. [28]

Hancock's daughter, Gina Rinehart, continues to chair Hancock Prospecting and its expansion into mining projects continues in Western Australia and other states of Australia, [29] estimated to be earning about A$870 million in revenue in 2011. [30] Rinehart is Australia's richest person and was also the world's richest woman for a period of time, with a net worth of A$ 29.17 billion during 2012 [31] by 2019, her wealth had eased to around $US14.8 billion, according to Forbes.

The Hancock Range, situated about 65 kilometres (40 mi) north-west of the town of Newman at 23°00′23″S 119°12′31″E  /  23.00639°S 119.20861°E  / -23.00639 119.20861 , commemorates the family's contribution to the establishment of the pastoral and mining industry in the Pilbara region. [32]


Contents

In 1139 the Kingdom of Portugal achieved independence from León, having doubled its area with the Reconquista under Afonso Henriques.

In 1297, King Denis of Portugal took personal interest in the development of exports, having organized the export of surplus production to European countries. On May 10, 1293, he instituted a maritime insurance fund for Portuguese traders living in the County of Flanders, which were to pay certain sums according to tonnage, accrued to them when necessary. Wine and dried fruits from Algarve were sold in Flanders and England, salt from Setúbal and Aveiro was a profitable export to northern Europe, and leather and kermes, a scarlet dye, were also exported. Portugal imported armor and munitions, fine clothes, and several manufactured products from Flanders and Italy. [3]

In 1317 king Denis made an agreement with Genoese merchant sailor Manuel Pessanha (Pessagno), appointing him first Admiral with trade privileges with his homeland in return for twenty warships and crews, with the goal of defending the country against Muslim pirate raids, thus laying the basis for the Portuguese Navy and establishment of a Genoese merchant community in Portugal. [4] Forced to reduce their activities in the Black Sea, the Republic of Genoa had turned to the North African trade in wheat and olive oil (valued also as an energy source) and a search for gold – navigating also into the ports of Bruges (Flanders) and England. Genoese and Florentine communities were established in Portugal, which profited from the enterprise and financial experience of these rivals of the Republic of Venice.

In the second half of the fourteenth century outbreaks of bubonic plague led to severe depopulation: the economy was extremely localized in a few towns, and migration from the country led to agricultural land being abandoned, resulting in an increase in rural unemployment. Only the sea offered alternatives, with most people settling in fishing and trading areas along the coast. [5] Between 1325 and 1357 Afonso IV of Portugal granted public funding to raise a proper commercial fleet and ordered the first maritime explorations, with the help of Genoese, under command of admiral Manuel Pessanha. In 1341 the Canary Islands, already known to Genoese seafarers, were officially discovered under the patronage of the Portuguese king, but in 1344 Castile disputed ownership of them, further propelling the Portuguese navy efforts. [6]

In 1415, the Portuguese occupied Ceuta, aiming to control navigation along the African coast, moved also by the goal of expanding Christianity with the help of the Pope, and by a desire of the unemployed nobility for epic acts of war after the Reconquista. Young Prince Henry the Navigator was there and became aware of profit possibilities in the Saharan trade routes. Governor of the rich Order of Christ since 1420 and holding valuable monopolies on resources in Algarve, he invested in sponsoring voyages down the coast of Mauritania, gathering a group of merchants, shipowners, stakeholders and participants interested in the sea lanes. Later his brother Prince Pedro granted him a royal monopoly of all profits from trading within the areas discovered. Soon the Atlantic islands of Madeira (1420) and the Azores (1427) were reached. There, wheat and later sugarcane were cultivated, as in Algarve, by the Genoese, becoming profitable activities. This helped them become wealthier.

Henry the Navigator took the lead role in encouraging Portuguese maritime exploration until his death in 1460. [7] At the time, Europeans did not know what lay beyond Cape Bojador on the African coast. Henry wished to know how far the Muslim territories in Africa extended, and whether it was possible to reach Asia by sea, both to reach the source of the lucrative spice trade and perhaps to join forces with the long-lost Christian kingdom of Prester John that was rumoured to exist somewhere in the "Indies". [8] [9]

In 1419 two of Henry's captains, João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira were driven by a storm to Madeira, an uninhabited island off the coast of Africa which had probably been known to Europeans since the 14th century. In 1420 Zarco and Teixeira returned with Bartolomeu Perestrelo and began Portuguese settlement of the islands. A Portuguese attempt to capture Grand Canary, one of the nearby Canary Islands, which had been partially settled by Spaniards in 1402 was unsuccessful and met with protestations from Castile. [10] Although the exact details are uncertain, cartographic evidence suggests the Azores were probably discovered in 1427 by Portuguese ships sailing under Henry's direction, and settled in 1432, suggesting that the Portuguese were able to navigate at least 745 miles (1,200 km) from the Portuguese coast. [11]

At around the same time as the unsuccessful attack on the Canary Islands, the Portuguese began to explore the North African coast. Sailors feared what lay beyond Cape Bojador, and did not know whether it was possible to return once it was passed. In 1434 one of Prince Henry's captains, Gil Eanes, passed this obstacle. Once this psychological barrier had been crossed, it became easier to probe further along the coast. [12] Within two decades of exploration, Portuguese ships had bypassed the Sahara. Westward exploration continued over the same period: Diogo de Silves discovered the Azores island of Santa Maria in 1427 and in the following years Portuguese mariners discovered and settled the rest of the Azores.

Henry suffered a serious setback in 1437 after the failure of an expedition to capture Tangier, having encouraged his brother, King Edward, to mount an overland attack from Ceuta. The Portuguese army was defeated and only escaped destruction by surrendering Prince Ferdinand, the king's youngest brother. [13] After the defeat at Tangier, Henry retired to Sagres on the southern tip of Portugal where he continued to direct Portuguese exploration until his death in 1460.

In 1443 Prince Pedro, Henry's brother, granted him the monopoly of navigation, war and trade in the lands south of Cape Bojador. Later this monopoly would be enforced by the Papal bulls Dum Diversas (1452) and Romanus Pontifex (1455), granting Portugal a trade monopoly for the newly discovered countries, [14] laying the basis for the Portuguese empire.

A major advance which accelerated this project was the introduction of the caravel in the mid-15th century, a ship that could be sailed closer to the wind than any other in operation in Europe at the time. [15] Using this new maritime technology, Portuguese navigators reached ever more southerly latitudes, advancing at an average rate of one degree a year. [16] Senegal and Cape Verde Peninsula were reached in 1445. The first feitoria trade post overseas was established then under Henry's direction, in 1445 on the island of Arguin off the coast of Mauritania, to attract Muslim traders and monopolize the business in the routes traveled in North Africa, starting the chain of Portuguese feitorias along the coast. In 1446, Álvaro Fernandes pushed on almost as far as present-day Sierra Leone and the Gulf of Guinea was reached in the 1460s.

Exploration after Prince Henry Edit

As a result of the first meager returns of the African explorations, in 1469 king Afonso V granted the monopoly of trade in part of the Gulf of Guinea to merchant Fernão Gomes, for an annual payment of 200,000 reals. Gomes was also required to explore 100 leagues (480 km) of the coast each year for five years. [17] He employed explorers João de Santarém, Pedro Escobar, Lopo Gonçalves, Fernão do Pó, and Pedro de Sintra, and exceeded the requirement. Under his sponsorship, Portuguese explorers crossed the Equator into the Southern Hemisphere and found the islands in the Gulf of Guinea, including São Tomé and Príncipe. [18]

In 1471, Gomes' explorers reached Elmina on the Gold Coast (present day Ghana), and discovered a thriving overland gold trade between the natives and visiting Arab and Berber traders. Gomes established his own trading post there, which became known as “A Mina” ("The Mine"). Trade between Elmina and Portugal grew in the next decade. [19] In 1481, the recently crowned João II decided to build São Jorge da Mina fort (Elmina Castle) and factory to protect this trade, which was then held again as a royal monopoly.

In 1482, Diogo Cão discovered the mouth of the Congo River. In 1486, Cão continued to Cape Cross, in present-day Namibia, near the Tropic of Capricorn.

In 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope on the southern tip of Africa, disproving the view that had existed since Ptolemy that the Indian Ocean was separate from the Atlantic. Also at this time, Pêro da Covilhã reached India via Egypt and Yemen, and visited Madagascar. He recommended further exploration of the southern route. [20]

As the Portuguese explored the coastlines of Africa, they left behind a series of padrões, stone crosses inscribed with the Portuguese coat of arms marking their claims, [21] and built forts and trading posts. From these bases, the Portuguese engaged profitably in the slave and gold trades. Portugal enjoyed a virtual monopoly of the Atlantic slave trade for over a century, exporting around 800 slaves annually. Most were brought to the Portuguese capital Lisbon, where it is estimated black Africans came to constitute 10 percent of the population. [22]

Tordesillas division of the world (1492) Edit

In 1492 Christopher Columbus's discovery for Spain of the New World, which he believed to be Asia, led to disputes between the Spanish and Portuguese. These were eventually settled by the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 which divided the world outside of Europe in an exclusive duopoly between the Portuguese and the Spanish, along a north–south meridian 370 leagues, or 970 miles (1,560 km), west of the Cape Verde islands. However, as it was not possible at the time to correctly measure longitude, the exact boundary was disputed by the two countries until 1777. [23]

The completion of these negotiations with Spain is one of several reasons proposed by historians for why it took nine years for the Portuguese to follow up on Dias's voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, though it has also been speculated that other voyages were, in fact, taking place in secret during this time. [24] [25] Whether or not this was the case, the long-standing Portuguese goal of finding a sea route to Asia was finally achieved in a ground-breaking voyage commanded by Vasco da Gama.

Reaching India and Brazil (1497–1500) Edit

Vasco da Gama's squadron left Portugal on 8 July 1497, consisting of four ships and a crew of 170 men. It rounded the Cape and continued along the coast of East Africa, where a local pilot was brought on board who guided them across the Indian Ocean, reaching Calicut in western India in May 1498. [26] After some conflict, da Gama got an ambiguous letter for trade with the Zamorin of Calicut, leaving there some men to establish a trading post.

Vasco da Gama's voyage to Calicut was the starting point for deployment of Portuguese feitoria posts along the east coast of Africa and in the Indian Ocean. [27] Shortly after, the Casa da Índia was established in Lisbon to administer the royal monopoly of navigation and trade. Exploration soon lost private support, and took place under the exclusive patronage of the Portuguese Crown.

The second voyage to India was dispatched in 1500 under Pedro Álvares Cabral. While following the same south-westerly route across the Atlantic Ocean as da Gama (to take advantage of the most favorable winds), Cabral made landfall on the Brazilian coast. This was probably an accidental discovery, but it has been speculated that the Portuguese secretly knew of Brazil's existence and that it lay on their side of the Tordesillas line. [28] Cabral recommended to the Portuguese King that the land be settled, and two follow-up voyages were sent in 1501 and 1503. The land was found to be abundant in pau-brasil, or brazilwood, from which it later inherited its name, but the failure to find gold or silver meant that for the time being Portuguese efforts were concentrated on India. [29]

The aim of Portugal in the Indian Ocean was to ensure the monopoly of the spice trade. Taking advantage of the rivalries that pitted Hindus against Muslims, the Portuguese established several forts and trading posts between 1500 and 1510. In East Africa, small Islamic states along the coast of Mozambique, Kilwa, Brava, Sofala and Mombasa were destroyed, or became either subjects or allies of Portugal. Pêro da Covilhã had reached Ethiopia, traveling secretly overland, as early as 1490 [30] a diplomatic mission reached the ruler of that nation on October 19, 1520.

In 1500 the second fleet to India (which also made landfall in Brazil) explored the East African coast, where Diogo Dias discovered the island that he named St. Lawrence, later known as Madagascar. This fleet, commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral, arrived at Calicut in September, where the first trade agreement in India was signed. For a short time a Portuguese factory was installed there, but it was attacked by Muslims on December 16 and several Portuguese, including the scribe Pêro Vaz de Caminha, died. After bombarding Calicut as a retaliation, Cabral went to rival Kochi.

Profiting from the rivalry between the Maharaja of Kochi and the Zamorin of Calicut, the Portuguese were well received and seen as allies, getting a permit to build a fort (Fort Manuel) and a trading post that was the first European settlement in India. There in 1503 they built the St. Francis Church. [31] [32] In 1502 Vasco da Gama took the island of Kilwa on the coast of Tanzania, where in 1505 the first fort of Portuguese East Africa was built to protect ships sailing in the East Indian trade.

In 1505 king Manuel I of Portugal appointed Francisco de Almeida first Viceroy of Portuguese India for a three-year period, starting the Portuguese government in the east, headquartered at Kochi. That year the Portuguese conquered Kannur where they founded St. Angelo Fort. The Viceroy's son Lourenço de Almeida arrived in Ceylon (modern Sri Lanka), where he discovered the source of cinnamon. Finding it divided into seven rival kingdoms, he established a defense pact with the kingdom of Kotte and extended the control in coastal areas, where in 1517 was founded the fortress of Colombo. [33]

In 1506 a Portuguese fleet under the command of Tristão da Cunha and Afonso de Albuquerque, conquered Socotra at the entrance of the Red Sea and Muscat in 1507, having failed to conquer Ormuz, following a strategy intended to close those entrances into the Indian Ocean. That same year, fortresses were built in the Island of Mozambique and Mombasa on the Kenyan coast. Madagascar was partly explored by Tristão da Cunha and in the same year Mauritius was discovered.

In 1509, the Portuguese won the sea Battle of Diu against the combined forces of the Ottoman Sultan Beyazid II, the Sultan of Gujarat, the Mamlûk Sultan of Cairo, the Samoothiri Raja of Kozhikode, the Venetian Republic, and the Ragusan Republic (Dubrovnik). The Portuguese victory was critical for its strategy of control of the Indian Ocean: the Turks and Egyptians withdrew their navies from India, leaving the seas to the Portuguese, setting its trade dominance for almost a century, and greatly assisting the growth of the Portuguese Empire. It also marked the beginning of European colonial dominance in Asia. A second Battle of Diu in 1538 finally ended Ottoman ambitions in India, and confirmed Portuguese hegemony in the Indian Ocean.

Under the government of Albuquerque, Goa was taken from the Bijapur sultanate in 1510 with the help of Hindu privateer Timoji. Coveted for being the best port in the region, mainly for the commerce in Arabian horses for the Deccan sultanates, it allowed the Portuguese to move on from their initial guest stay in Cochin. Despite constant attacks, Goa became the seat of the Portuguese government, under the name of Estado da India (State of India), with the conquest triggering compliance of neighbor kingdoms: Gujarat and Calicut sent embassies, offering alliances and grants to fortify. Albuquerque began that year in Goa the first Portuguese mint in India, taking the opportunity to announce the achievement. [34] [35]

Southeast Asia expeditions Edit

In April 1511 Albuquerque sailed to Malacca in modern-day Malaysia, [36] the most important eastern point in the trade network, where Malay met Gujarati, Chinese, Japanese, Javanese, Bengali, Persian and Arabic traders, described by Tomé Pires as invaluable. The port of Malacca became then the strategic base for Portuguese trade expansion with China and Southeast Asia, under the Portuguese rule in India with its capital at Goa. To defend the city a strong fort was erected, called the "A Famosa", where one of its gates still remains today. Learning of Siamese ambitions over Malacca, Albuquerque immediately sent Duarte Fernandes on a diplomatic mission to the kingdom of Siam (modern Thailand), where he was the first European to arrive, establishing amicable relations between the two kingdoms. [37] In November that year, getting to know the location of the so-called "Spice Islands" in the Moluccas, Albuquerque sent an expedition to find them. Led by António de Abreu, the expedition arrived in early 1512. Abreu went by Ambon, while his deputy commander Francisco Serrão advanced to Ternate, where a Portuguese fort was allowed. That same year, in Indonesia, the Portuguese took Makassar, reaching Timor in 1514. Departing from Malacca, Jorge Álvares came to southern China in 1513. This visit followed the arrival in Guangzhou, where trade was established. Later a trading post at Macau would be established.

The Portuguese empire expanded into the Persian Gulf as Portugal contested control of the spice trade with the Ottoman Empire. In 1515, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered the Huwala state of Hormuz at the head of the Persian Gulf, establishing it as a vassal state. Aden, however, resisted Albuquerque's expedition in that same year, and another attempt by Albuquerque's successor Lopo Soares de Albergaria in 1516. Bahrain was captured in 1521, when a force led by António Correia defeated the Jabrid King, Muqrin ibn Zamil. [38] In a shifting series of alliances, the Portuguese dominated much of the southern Persian Gulf for the next hundred years. The island of Mozambique became a strategic port on the regular maritime route linking Lisbon to Goa, and Fort São Sebastião and a hospital were built there. In the Azores, the Armada of the Islands protected ships from the Indies en route to Lisbon.

In 1525, after Fernão de Magalhães's expedition (1519–1522), Spain under Charles V sent an expedition to colonize the Moluccas islands, claiming that they were in his zone of the Treaty of Tordesillas, since there was not a set limit to the east. Led by García Jofre de Loaísa, the expedition reached the Moluccas, docking at Tidore. Conflict with the Portuguese already established in nearby Ternate was inevitable, starting nearly a decade of skirmishes. An agreement was reached only with the Treaty of Zaragoza (1529), which gave the Moluccas to Portugal and the Philippines to Spain.

In 1530, John III organized the colonization of Brazil around 15 capitanias hereditárias ("hereditary captainships"), that were given to anyone who wanted to administer and explore them, to overcome the need to defend the territory, since an expedition under the command of Gonçalo Coelho in 1503 had found the French making incursions on the land. That same year, there was a new expedition from Martim Afonso de Sousa with orders to patrol the whole Brazilian coast, banish the French, and create the first colonial towns: São Vicente on the coast, and São Paulo near the edge of the inland plateau (planalto) and the Serra do Mar. From the 15 original captainships, only two, Pernambuco and São Vicente, prospered. With permanent settlement came the establishment of the sugar cane industry and its intensive labor demands which were met with Native American and later African slaves.

In 1534 Gujarat was occupied by the Mughals and the Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat was forced to sign the Treaty of Bassein (1534) with the Portuguese, establishing an alliance to regain the country, giving in exchange Daman, Diu, Mumbai and Bassein. [39] In 1538 the fortress of Diu was again surrounded by Ottoman ships. Another siege failed in 1547, putting an end to Ottoman ambitions and confirming Portuguese hegemony.

In 1542 Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier arrived in Goa at the service of King John III of Portugal, in charge of an Apostolic Nunciature. At the same time Francisco Zeimoto, António Mota, and other traders arrived in Japan for the first time. According to Fernão Mendes Pinto, who claimed to be in this journey, they arrived at Tanegashima, where the locals were impressed by European firearms, which would be immediately made by the Japanese on a large scale. [40] In 1557 the Chinese authorities allowed the Portuguese to settle in Macau through an annual payment, creating a warehouse in the triangular trade between China, Japan and Europe. In 1570 the Portuguese bought a Japanese port where they founded the city of Nagasaki, [41] thus creating a trading center that for many years was the port from Japan to the world.

Portugal established trading ports at far-flung locations like Goa, Ormuz, Malacca, Kochi, the Maluku Islands, Macau, and Nagasaki. Guarding its trade from both European and Asian competitors, Portugal dominated not only the trade between Asia and Europe, but also much of the trade between different regions of Asia, such as India, Indonesia, China, and Japan. Jesuit missionaries, such as the Basque Francis Xavier, followed the Portuguese to spread Roman Catholic Christianity to Asia with mixed success.

The successive expeditions and experience of the pilots led to a fairly rapid evolution in Portuguese nautical science, creating an elite of astronomers, navigators, mathematicians and cartographers. Among them stood Pedro Nunes with studies on how to determine latitude by the stars, and João de Castro, who made important observations of magnetic declination over the entire route around Africa.

Ships Edit

Until the 15th century, the Portuguese were limited to cabotage navigation using barques and barinels (ancient cargo vessels used in the Mediterranean). These boats were small and fragile, with only one mast with a fixed quadrangular sail and did not have the capabilities to overcome the navigational difficulties associated with southward oceanic exploration, as the strong winds, shoals and strong ocean currents easily overwhelmed their abilities. They are associated with the earliest discoveries, such as the Madeira Islands, the Azores, the Canaries, and to the early exploration of the northwest African coast as far south as Arguim in the current Mauritania.

The ship that truly launched the first phase of the Portuguese discoveries along the African coast was the caravel, a development based on existing fishing boats. They were agile and easier to navigate, with a tonnage of 50 to 160 tons and 1 to 3 masts, with lateen triangular sails allowing luffing. The caravel benefited from a greater capacity to tack. The caravel's limited capacity for cargo and crew were its main drawbacks, but these did not hinder its success. Among the famous caravels are Berrio, which was the first ship of Vasco da Gama's first armada to reach Portugal after the voyage, and Anunciação (Nossa Senhora da Anunciação), which sailed with Cabral in 1500.

With the start of long oceanic sailing, larger ships were also developed. "Nau" was the Portuguese archaic synonym for any large ship, primarily merchant ships. Due to the piracy that plagued the coasts, they began to be used in the navy and were provided with cannon ports, which led to the classification of "naus" according to the power of the ship's artillery. They were also adapted to the increasing maritime trade: from 200 tons capacity in the 15th century to 500 tons later, they become impressive in the 16th century, having usually two decks, fighting castles fore and aft, and two to four masts with overlapping sails. In voyages to India in the sixteenth century, carracks were also used. These were large merchant ships with a high edge (freeboard) and three masts with square sails, which often reached 2000 tons.

Celestial navigation Edit

In the thirteenth century celestial navigation was already known, guided by the sun position. For celestial navigation the Portuguese, like other Europeans, used Arab navigation tools, like the astrolabe and quadrant, which they made easier and simpler. They also created the cross-staff, or cane of Jacob, for measuring at sea the height of the sun and other stars. The Southern Cross become a reference upon arrival in the Southern hemisphere by João de Santarém and Pedro Escobar in 1471, starting the use of this constellation in celestial navigation. But the results varied throughout the year, which required corrections.

To this the Portuguese used the astronomical tables (Ephemeris), precious tools for oceanic navigation, which experienced a remarkable diffusion in the fifteenth century. These tables revolutionized navigation, allowing mariners to calculate their latitude. Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral used the tables of the Almanach Perpetuum by astronomer Abraham Zacuto, which were published in Leiria in 1496, along with his improved astrolabe.

Sailing techniques Edit

Besides coastal exploration, Portuguese also made trips off in the ocean to gather meteorological and oceanographic information (in these trips were discovered the archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores, and the Sargasso Sea). The knowledge of wind patterns and currents – the trade winds and the oceanic gyres in the Atlantic, and the determination of latitude led to the discovery of the best ocean route back from Africa: crossing the Central Atlantic to the latitude of the Azores, using the permanent favorable winds and currents that spin clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere because of atmospheric circulation and the Coriolis effect, facilitating the way to Lisbon and thus enabling the Portuguese to venture increasingly farther from shore, the maneuver that became known as "Volta do mar". In 1565, application of this principle in the Pacific Ocean led to the Spanish discovery of the Manila Galleon trade route between Mexico and the Philippines.

Cartography Edit

It is thought that Jehuda Cresques, son of the Catalan cartographer Abraham Cresques has been one of the notable cartographers at the service of Prince Henry. However, the oldest signed Portuguese sea chart is a Portolan made by Pedro Reinel in 1485 representing Western Europe and parts of Africa, reflecting the explorations made by Diogo Cão. Reinel was also author of the first nautical chart known with an indication of latitudes in 1504 and the first representation of a Wind rose.

With his son, cartographer Jorge Reinel and Lopo Homem, they participated in the making of the atlas known as "Lopo Homem-Reinés Atlas" or "Miller Atlas", in 1519. They were considered the best cartographers of their time, with Emperor Charles V wanting them to work for him. In 1517 King Manuel I of Portugal handed Lopo Homem a charter giving him the privilege to certify and amend all compass needles in vessels.

In the third phase of the former Portuguese nautical cartography, characterized by the abandonment of the influence of Ptolemy's representation of the East and more accuracy in the representation of lands and continents, stands out Fernão Vaz Dourado (Goa

1580), giving him a reputation as one of the best cartographers of the time. Many of his charts are large scale.


The Portuguese in the Age of Discovery c.1340-1665

Una splendida collana di volumi illustrati dai più famosi disegnatori: ogni opera offre una panoramica sintetica ma completa sulle uniformi, le insegne, gli equipaggiamenti, ecc. di famosi corpi militari dalle legioni romane alla seconda guerra mondiale e oltre.

From humble beginnings, in the course of three centuries the Portuguese built the world&rsquos first truly global empire, stretching from modern Brazil to sub-Saharan Africa and from India to the East Indies (Indonesia). Portugal had established its present-day borders by 1300 and the following century saw extensive warfare that confirmed Portugal&rsquos independence and allowed it to aspire to maritime expansion, sponsored by monarchs such as Prince Henry the Navigator. During this nearly 300-year period, the Portuguese fought alongside other Iberian forces against the Moors of Andalusia with English help successfully repelled a Castilian invasion (1385) fought the Moors in Morocco, and Africans, the Ottoman Turks, and the Spanish in colonial competition. The colourful and exotic Portuguese forces that prevailed in these battles on land and sea are the subject of this book.

illustrato a colori e in bianco e nero

I vecchi numeri della serie MEN AT ARMS sono sempre prenotabili &ndash elenco titoli disponibile su richiesta.


The Portuguese in the Age of Discovery 1300-1580

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From the Ruins of Empire: The Revolt Against the West and the Remaking of Asia (Paperback)

Viewed in the West as a time of self-confident progress, the Victorian period was experienced by Asians as a catastrophe. As the British gunned down the last heirs to the Mughal Empire or burned down the Summer Palace in Beijing, it was clear that for Asia to recover a new way of thinking was needed. Pankaj Mishra re-tells the history of the past two centuries, showing how a remarkable, disparate group of thinkers, journalists, radicals and charismatics emerged from the ruins of empire to create an unstoppable Asian renaissance, one whose ideas lie behind everything from the Chinese Communist Party to the Muslim Brotherhood, and have made our world what it is today.

'Arrestingly original . this penetrating and disquieting book should be on the reading list of anybody who wants to understand where we are today' John Gray, Independent

'A riveting account that makes new and illuminating connections . deeply entertaining and deeply humane' Hisham Matar

'Fascinating . a rich and genuinely thought-provoking book' Noel Malcolm, Sunday Telegraph

'Provocative, shaming and convincing' Michael Binyon, The Times

'Lively . engaging . retains the power to shock' Mark Mazower, Financial Times

'Subtle, erudite and entertaining' Economist, New Delhi

Pankaj Mishra is the author of Butter Chicken in Ludiana, The Romantics, An End to Suffering and Temptations of the West. He writes principally for the Guardian, The New York Times, London Review of Books and New York Review of Books. He lives in London, Shimla and New York.

Publisher: Penguin Books Ltd
ISBN: 9780241954669
Number of pages: 368
Weight: 269 g
Dimensions: 198 x 129 x 21 mm


The Fishing Fleet: Husband-Hunting in the Raj (Paperback)

From the late 19th century, when the Raj was at its height, many of Britain's best and brightest young men went out to India to work as administrators, soldiers and businessmen. With the advent of steam travel and the opening of the Suez Canal, countless young women, suffering at the lack of eligible men in Britain, followed in their wake. This amorphous band was composed of daughters returning after their English education, girls invited to stay with married sisters or friends, and yet others whose declared or undeclared goal was simply to find a husband. They were known as the Fishing Fleet, and this book is their story, hitherto untold.

For these young women, often away from home for the first time, one thing they could be sure of was a rollicking good time. By the early 20th century, a hectic social scene was in place, with dances, parties, amateur theatricals, picnics, tennis tournaments, cinemas and gymkhanas, with perhaps a tiger shoot and a glittering dinner at a raja's palace thrown in. And, with men outnumbering women by roughly four to one, romances were conducted at alarming speed and marriages were frequent. But after the honeymoon, life often changed dramatically: whisked off to a remote outpost with few other Europeans for company, and where constant vigilance was required to guard against disease, they found it a far cry from the social whirlwind of their first arrival.

Anne de Courcy's sparkling narrative is enriched by a wealth of first-hand sources - unpublished memoirs, letters and diaries rescued from attics - which bring this forgotten era vividly to life.

Publisher: Orion Publishing Co
ISBN: 9780753828960
Number of pages: 352
Weight: 340 g
Dimensions: 196 x 126 x 30 mm


Honours Thesis Archive

The senior thesis is the main challenge and reward of your final year in the History Honours program. Students must undertake substantial pieces of independent research on topics of their choice and will receive individual direction from faculty members.

We encourage students to pick a topic in a field in which they are broadly familiar with and have taken classes in. A faculty advisor will help you shape a thesis topic that aligns with your interests, existing knowledge of the field and recommend a Faculty member with similar interests.

Many thanks to the UBC Library for making these honours theses available in cIRcle, UBC’s digital repository for research and teaching materials. Materials in cIRcle are openly accessible to anyone on the web and will be preserved for future generations.

Below is an archive of Honours Theses from students who have graduated from the program. Theses marked with an * are available in the History Office.

Ava-Pointon, Isabelle. “The Indigenous Crimean War: Tlingit, Coast Salish, Kanaka Maoli, and Itelmen Participation in the Pacific Theatre, 1854-1856”

Braun, Nicola. TBA

Chui, Bianca Man Yan. “Travel Through Tastebuds and Fingertips in Edo Japan: A Study of Shinpan gofunai ryūkō meibutsu annai_sugoroku

Davelaar, Victoria. “Competing Histories and Palestinian Heritage: The Yasser Arafat Museum and the Palestinian Museum”

Nilson, Edmund. “Trimming the Fringes of their World: The British Maritime Fur Trade and the Expansion of the Western World, 1785-1789”

Richardson, Margaux. “Your Body, but not Your Choice: An Examination of Power Dynamics in 1980s American Fraternities”

Shelton, Marcel Alain Levell. “An Alchemist Among Angels: Newton and the Politics of Representation, 1688-1800”

Bruno, Peter J. "Imperial Imaginations and Environmental Encounters: Knowledge, Power, and the Construction of Order in Colonial Borneo, 1860-1900"

Chan, Kelly "Following the Ghosts of Postwar Japan: The Female Ghost in Five Japanese Horror Films from the 1950s-1970s"

Elliot, Elizabeth "Bubonic Plague as a Stage for Emergent Indian Nationalism”

Geisberg, Benjamin "Under African Skies: The South African Communist Party’s Strategies for Liberation in African Communist, 1959-1990"

Lee, Beulah "Writing Chinese Canadian Resistance: Expressions of Cultural Hybridity, Identity, and Belonging in the Chinatown News, 1953-66"

Poburko, Olena "Sophia Jablonska and Non-Colonial Orientalism: travel writing, gender and construction of identity in the French Empire, 1928-35.”

Tan, Melissa Ying Yu “'Tracing the Lost Footprints of Sarawak': A Study of Malaysian History Through the Memoir of Ong Kee Hui"

White, Abigail "Behind Nation-Building: Anti-Communist Repression in East Kalimantan, 1965-1980"

Cassinelli, Caroline "'Do You See Me Now?': The Role of Film and Digital Media in the Historical Construction of American Deaf Identity”

Cocking, Olivia "'Under Two Flags': Women's Philanthropy in the American Committee for Devastated France"

Deschamps, Nathan "In Pursuit of Spiritual Harmony: Weimar Classicism and Kleinstaaterei Germany, 1773–1832"

Macleod, Emma "Between Worlds, Between Times: The Moon Goddess in the Interwar American Mind"

Rigby-Thompson, Mina "Turkey, Diminishing American Power, and the Cyprus Crises of the Cold War: The Ultimate Assertion of Power"

Simpson, Megan "The Right to Participate, The Right to the Truth: Public Inquiries into Indigenous Policy, 1946–1996"

Cooper, Duncan "The Nature of Banff: Constructing Settler Colonialism along Company and Country Lines, 1880-1940"

Forsyth, Genevieve "In the Contemplation of Ideal Beauty": Fashion, British Femininity and Representations of India, 1789-1820"

Penner, Cassidy "The Cultural Politics of Edwardian Socialism and The New Age under A.R. Orage, 1907-1915"

Athwal, Avneet "70 Years of Silence: Memories of the Partition of India and Pakistan" (*)

Hewitt, Liane Marielise "The Consumers-Take-All: The Marginalization of Producer Co-operation in Britain, 1848–1890" (*)

Ho, Lok Yee Caroline "Worldly Wealth: The Financial Services of the Knights Templar" (*)

Kelly, Charles Connor "Forging Imperial Manliness: The Construction of Masculinity at Upper Canada College, 1895–1929" (*)

Khazei, Sepideh "Remembering Constitutionalism and Mossadegh: The Liberation Movement of Iran's Historical Memory" (*)

Phillips, Jack W. "Playing Soldiers: Child Combatants during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars" (*)

Shaw, Meredith "Eishyshok Embodied, Contained, and Contextualized: Early Representations of the "Holocaust by Bullets"" (*)

Stearman, Stephanie "Adjusting the Sails: How 18th-Century Salem Women Navigated Life Ashore" (*)

Toor, Amrit "Sexual Assault and the University: Examining Feminist Struggles at UBC (1970–79)" (*)

Bedar, Nemee "The Failure of State-Building in Afghanistan, 1989–1996" (*)

Copping, Natalie "Tourism through Architectural Eyes: British Perceptions of Italian Architecture on the Grand Tour" (*)

Dawson, Maria M.,"Humanity of Hunger: Starvation, Power, and Judaic Tradition in the Lodz Ghetto" (*)

Evans, Arianna "Possa Il Mio Sangue Servire: Epistolary Performance and Continuity from the Prisons of the Italian Resistance" (*)

Ewasiuk, James "Comedy on the Stand: Counterculture and the American Stand-Up" (*)

Gorton, Alice "The Civilized Miner: Gender, Race, and Leisure in Cariboo’s Boomtowns, 1861–1871" (*)

Hunter, Connor Stewart "Warming Trend: Soviet Climate Science and State Policy" (*)

Krawchuk, Erin "Clutched to the Heart: The Schara Tzedeck Memorial and Holocaust Commemoration in Vancouver, B.C." (*)

McClanaghan, Lauren "The Fifteenth Amendment in Flesh and Blood: Black United States Congressmen from 1870 to 1901" (*)

Ng, Matthew Shing Tak "Building Trust amongst Communist Brethren: Examining the Korean War in the Context of Sino-Soviet Relations, 1950–1953" (*)

Yam, Vincent "Showing Canada to Canadians: The National Film Board, World War Two and the Nation’s Identity" (*)

Blatchford, Barrie “Animal Acclimatization in America: The Case Study of the Ring-Necked Pheasant” (*)

Bunton, Robin “Travelogue Hegemonies: The Victorian Construction of Womanhood in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Egypt” (*)

Doyle, Joseph W. “The Other Canadian Content: Canadian Music, Alternative Culture, and Campus Radio, 1980–95” (*)

Fernando, Jason “The Role of Sunyata in the Ethics and Science of Francisco J. Varela” (*)

Garrett, Pilar “A Natural Brilliance: Brazil’s Museu Nacional and the 19th-Century Pursuit of National Consciousness” (*)

Goldowitz, Jacob “Sender, Receiver, and Reader: The Ninth-Century Letter Collections of Einhard, Lupus, and Frothar” (*)

Gooding, Anna “Policing Women: Clubswomen, Policewomen, and Delinquent Girls in Vancouver, 1910–1930” (*)

Grenier, Nigel “Contested Narratives: The Burning of Gitsegukla 1872 from a Gitxsan Perspective” (*)

Hyde, Lauren “An “Ought-World:” Episcopal Aspirations of the Peace of God in Francia, 989–1044” (*)

Knight, Shannon “Footbinding from Flower to Foot: How Missionaries Transformed a Symbol of Pride to Shame” (*)

MacAulay, Alison ““History, Healing, and Hollywood: Social Memoir in Rwandan Cinema”” (*)

Matyszewski, Adam “Dividing Solidarity: Conflict, Leadership and Times in the Solidarity Movement, British Columbia, 1983” (*)

Mohale, Maneo R. “A Dance in the Rain: Race, Resistance and Media in Early Apartheid South Africa” (*)

Murray, Hanna “More than Muscle: Physical Culture and American Health at the Turn of the Century” (*)

Read, Catherine “Feminine Futures: Maternal Authority in the Early Years of The Girl’s Own Paper, 1880–1882” (*)

Ribi, Daniel “Ensnared by the Octopus: Labour, Politics, and the Press in the Great Railroad Strike of 1877” (*)

Salim, Jason “Siapa Saya: Chinese Indonesian Pasts through the Life and Art of FX Harsono” (*)

Willoughby, Robert “Burke, Mill and the Company: An Examination of the Political Influence of Edmund Burke and J.S. Mill on the Justifications for the East India Company’s Rule ” (*)

Dyck, Bruce “From the Bowels of Vancouver: Punk and Vancouver’s Musical Geography,1977–1984” (*)

Eeg, Devin ““The Practical Philosophy of the Men Now in Power”: “Marcus,” Malthus, and Moral Economy in Early Victorian Britain” (*)

Green, Madeline “Unknown”

Kramer, Addison “We Know What Our Children Are Watching: Understanding United States Parent Activism for Improved Children’s Television from 1950 through the 1970s” (*)

Lewis, Benjamin “The Language of British Abolitionism: Evangelicalism and the Middle Class, 1787–1807” (*)

Ma, Connie Wing Y. “Shopping for Something More: Femininity and Fashion Culture in Reform China” (*)

Majumder, Debolina “Spatializing Guerilla Warfare: An Exploration of Naxalite Theory, Strategy, and Practice, 1965–73” (*)

Moore, Lindsey “Contested Historical Terrain: A Consideration of the Settler Narratives of Powell River, 1960–2002” (*)

Park, Ilhoon Ezra “The Power of Perception: The Influence of the Perceived Political Economy on American Foreign Policy in South Korea and South Vietnam during the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations from 1960–1963” (*)

Rongavilla, Jordan “The Virtue of Cleanliness: Situating American Hygiene Reforms in the Philippines between 1898–1920” (*)

Vilchez, David “The Formation of the Zainichi Community and Its Modern Identity 1945–1980” (*)

Boswell, Julia C. “Mobility, Automobilisation and the Colonial Body: The Bicycle in India, 1869–1930” (*)

Haas, Stefani “A Tale of Two Cultural Brokers: James Teit, William Beynon and Cultural Brokers in British Columbia” (*)

Keys, Lindsay “An Outpost on the Edge of Chaos: Four Decades of African Corruption and American Imperialism at the Hotel InterContinental Kinshasa” (*)

Kruk, James “Bureaucratic Shogun: The Administrative Structure of the Occupation of Japan and Its Role in Democratizing Reforms” (*)

Lim, Sharon W.Q. “Becoming the Straits Chinese: Active Constructions of Identity in Singapore, 1890–1910s” (*)

Timmermann, Josh “Sharers in the Contemplative Virtue: Julianus Pomerius’s Carolingian Audience” (*)

Trujillo, Maria A. “Transforming Medellin: Erasing the Mafia and the Creation of a New Queen” (*)

Tsundu, Jenny “Writing “Good” Rebels: Representations of American Activist Youth as Burgeoning Internationalists, Purposeful Humanists, and Earnest Non-Conformists in the 1960s Soviet Press” (*)

Compagna, Conrad “Unknown”

Golvin, Ely “Unknown”

Hunter, Montana “From Theresienstadt to Vancouver: The Postwar Fate of Two Holocaust Operas” (*)

Maher, Katharine “The Innuulitsivik Maternity: Inuit Resistance and a New Center of Knowledge Production in the North” (*)

Marsh, Kelly “"The Child First and Always": Philanthropy and the Development of Britain's First Children's Hospital” (*)

Metzger, Johnson “Occult Science and the Science of the Occult: Astral Projection and the Disenchantment of Fin-de-siècle Berlin” (*)

Ritland, Lisa “Interpreting the Landscape: Skwxmwú7mesh Legends, Empire and Colonialism in Vancouver, 1880–1950” (*)

Robertson, Erika “Localizing the Sacred in the Material through Sixteenth-Century Anabaptism Baptism” (*)

Walshe, Arran “Visual Representations of Martyrdom in the Lebanese Civil War: Secularism, Nationalism and Confessionalism, 1975–1990” (*)

Wigdor, Lara “The Prague Spring Invasion, Charter 77 and Literature: How Three American Newspapers Covered Human Rights in Czechoslovakia” (*)

Williams, Gregory “Technologies of Resistance: Handsom Lake and Senece Responses to Land Alienation and Quaker Missions” (*)

Wong, Wilbert “American Missionaries and the Nanking Massacre: A History of Humanitarians, Collaborators and Evangelists” (*)

Ahmadian, Alireza “Dr Syyed Fakhr al-Din Shadman: The Forgotten Modernizer” (*)

Donnelly, Elizabeth “Buying Community: Consumerism in Women's Food Consumption, 1950–1980” (*)

Grguric, Ekatarina “Theater of the Senses: The Sensory Experience of Public Anatomical Discussion during the Italian Renaissance” (*)

Mackenzie, Alanna “From Consumption to Alternative Consumption: Evolving Constructions of Nature in Beautiful British Columbia Magazine” (*)

McCarter, Alexandra “"India can make it!" Tourism and Nation-Building in Early Post-independence India” (*)

Mehes, Laura “The Politics of Pop: Female Pop Stars and the 1980s American Culture Wars” (*)

Parashar, Aneil “Deconstructing the Liberal Consensus: Assessing the Positions Espoused by Senator Robert F. Kennedy on Poverty and Race Relations in the United States” (*)

Penney, James Mark “Sin, Skin and Spectacle: Cultural Hegemony and Photographs of Circus Freaks and Light-Skinned Slaves in Nineteenth-Century America” (*)

Powell, Katie “Mind the View: A Spatial Reading of the Victorian Public Asylum” (*)

Pritchard, Jamie “"Hubbert's Pimple": The Rise, Fall and Re-Emergence of the Hubbert Oil Peak Theory in the United States” (yes )

Ballantyne, Julie “The Power of Professional Medicine: Abortion in Theory and Practice” (*)

Berger, Wes “From Social Evil to Social Oil: Cultural Change and Recreational Drug Use in Vancouver, 1967–1977” (*)

Chiu, Joanna “Modern Girls and New Women in May Fourth Literature: Chinese Leftist Writers' Negotiations with Gender and Revolution” (*)

Davies, Jessica “Presence, Performance and Parity: How White and Indigenous Women Participated in the Development of America's Early National Parks” (*)

Feil-Fraser, Emilie “The Crusade of the Good-Willed” (*)

LeBlanc, Vanessa “Trudeau, How He Haunts Us Still” (*)

Levenstadt, Brent “How the American Credit Card Industry Developed to the Advantage of the Biggest Banks: An In-Depth Examination” (*)

Lewis, David “The Limits of Aggressive Revivalism in Eighteenth-Century Massachusetts: The Congregational Church and the Great Awakening” (*)

Long, Holly “The Shinsengumi in Japanese Visual Culture: The Development of Popular Image” (*)

Zhou, Carson “"No Man Can Argue on His Knees": The Political Power of Queen Victoria through Dismissal of Palmerston” (*)

Bright, Catherine “Ex quibus unus fuit Odorannus: Community and Self in an Eleventh-Century Monastery (Saint Pierre-le-Vif, Sens)” (*)

Dharssi, Alia "Communication, Social Change and the 'War in the Woods': A Study of How the Western Canada Wilderness Committee Shaped the Public's Understanding of the Wilderness"

Havelaar, Robin “The Land of Socialist Creation: Siberia in the Soviet Imagination, 1956–1962” (*)

Hill, Thomas "Norman Mailer's Armies of the Night"

Hudson, Alex “Half Devil and Half Child” (*)

McConnell-Whitford, Alexa "'The whole sistom': Cultural Identity and Justice on Pennsylvania's Frontier."

Portiz, Freeman “The Role of the Press in Shaping a New Middle-East: Egyptian-Israeli Relations from 1977–1979 as Seen through the Headlines/News Articles, Opinion Pieces and Editorials of Three Major Israeli Newspapers: The Jerusalem Post, Yedioth Aharonoth, and Ha'aretz” (*)

Roussin, Della S. “The Premier and the Press: The Battle for the Hearts and Minds of British Columbians” (*)

Wang, Chelsea Zi "Thinking Through Sources: History, Texts, and a Newly-Found Letter of Wang Yangming"

Wu, Jim “"Semi-Reformed": Official Western-Academic, and the Individual Recollections and Perceptions of Shanghai, 1976–1989” (*)

Ballan, Mohammad “Fraxinetum: A Glimpse into the Mediterranean World of the Tenth Century?” (*)

Bartel, Calvin “Internal Tension and External Pressure in Diego Valadés' Rhetorica Christiana” (*)

Bell, Andrew “From Debate to Dialogue: Richard Kearney and the Debate about Postmodernism in the Philosophy of History”

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Robinson, R. Ken “The Development of Canals in England to 1790”

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Hartman, Sven “Canadian Immigration and Canada's Skilled Manpower Policy, 1957–1967” (*)

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Preovolos, Maria D. “High Hopes and Broken Dreams: The Student Nonviolent Co-ordinating Committee and the Mississippi Summer Project of 1964” (*)

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Coleman, Graham C “"Palestine: The Great Power Pawn" (An Examination of the Detrimental Effects of Great Power Intervention into Palestine, 1914–1948)”

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Jeffrey Dahmer murdered in prison

Serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer, serving 15 consecutive life sentences for the brutal murders of 15 men, is beaten to death by a fellow inmate while performing cleaning duty in a bathroom at the Columbia Correctional Institute gymnasium in Portage, Wisconsin.

During a 13-year period, Dahmer, who lived primarily in the Midwest, murdered at least 17 men. Most of these men were young, gay African Americans who Dahmer lured back to his home, promising to pay them money to pose nude for photographs. Dahmer would then drug and strangle them to death, generally mutilating, and occasionally cannibalizing, their bodies. Dahmer was finally arrested on July 22, 1991, and entered a plea of guilty but insane in 15 of the 17 murders he confessed to committing. In February 1992, the jury found him sane in each murder, and he was sentenced to 15 consecutive life sentences.

Two years later, Dahmer was killed at the age of 34 by fellow inmate Christopher Scarver, who also fatally beat the third man on their work detail, inmate Jesse Anderson. Scarver’s motive in killing the two men is not entirely clear however, in his subsequent criminal trial he maintained that God told him to kill Dahmer and the other inmate. Scarver, already serving a life term for murder, was sentenced to additional life terms and transferred to a federal prison.



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